Introduction: Peter White is one of only a handful of Bedford County gunsmiths who made rifles in the flintlock era that have survived.
1778: Calculating based on information reported to be on his now-missing tombstone, Peter White was born circa 1778.
1794: The following image is from page 246 of the Bedford County warrant register. It shows that Bedford County land warrant no. 472 was to a Peter White. The April 10, 1794 warrant was for property adjoining the Maryland line. Since no survey information is listed, it appears that Peter White never had the property surveyed or patented. There is no way of knowing for sure if this is a record of the gunsmith Peter White, but it is difficult to reconcile with his calculated birth date of 1778. If he was really born circa 1778, he would have only been about 16-years-old in 1794.
1794: Plate 127 of Hetrick's "The Bedford County Rifle and Its Makers" shows a 44 caliber smooth rifle that is marked "1794". The lock plate is engraved "P.W." It has the broad buttstock of the Emmitsburg school, an octagonal barrel that is 44-1/2 inches long, and an overall length of 60-1/2-inches. This firearm is said to have been owned by Jacob Snowberger who settled in the vicinity of Woodbury after emigrating to Bedford County. The initial owner is said to have been Swiss immigrant Johannes Snowberger, who settled at Snow Hill in what is now Franklin County, Pennsylvania. If I understand things correctly, Snow Hill is about 17 miles from Emmitsburg on modern roads. After being passed down to Jacob Snowberger, the rifle remained in the Snowberger family for generations, and the ownership story was apparently passed down with the rifle. In summary, the family ownership tradition seems harmonious with the theory that Peter White began his career in the vicinity of Emmitsburg, Maryland. As noted above, if Peter White really was born circa 1778, he would have only been about 16 years old in 1794.
1800: Several of Peter White's rifles are in the style of the Emmitsburg school. One of these is shown on page 541 of Kindig's book "Thoughts on the Kentucky Rifle in its Golden Age" and another is shown by plate 127 in Hetrick's book "The Bedford County Rifle and its Makers." This is harmonious with the 1800 federal census of Emmitsburg, where a young Peter White is enumerated as heading a household. This would have been near the gunsmith John Armstrong, who wrote that he was "born in the year 1772 the 5th day of September". The 1983 Whisker booklet "Gunsmiths and Gunmakers of Bedford and Somerset Counties Pennsylvania 1770-1900" speculates that Peter White may have apprenticed or worked for John Armstrong. Here is what Helfman's 1906 book "History of Emmitsburg, Maryland" has to say about John Armstrong:
1800: The 1983 Whisker booklet indicates that John White, son of Peter White, was born in 1800 in Maryland. The basis for this statement may be a census record where John White is enumerated as having been born in Maryland.
1803: According to the 2001 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford, Fulton, Huntington, & Somerset Counties" by James B. Whisker and Larry W. Yantz, an 1803 store record mentions Peter White as living in the Cumberland Valley of Bedford County, on property belonging to a Christman. This is a confusing reference. In the September 1983 issue of the newsletter of the Association of Ohio Longrifle Collectors, James Whisker mentions the Christman property and the store, but seemingly in the context of an advertisement, and indicates Peter White was located approximately two miles south of the town of Bedford, in Bedford Valley. The 2017 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford County, Pennsylvania" clarifies the matter, stating that the Christman reference is from the records of a store that were in the possession of gun collector R. A. Farber.
1806: In 1806, Peter White placed a recurring advertisement in the "Bedford Gazette" newspaper that ran from July 7, 1806 through at least January, 1807. It states, "WANTED IMMEDIATELY A GOOD, sober, industrious Journeyman Gunsmith, to whom will be paid five pounds per month, and found; and employment as long as he wishes to stay. Also will be taken, as an apprentice to the above business, a smart active lad, from fourteen to sixteen years of age The terms will be in proportion to the age and ability of the youth. July 7, 1806 PETER WHITE".
The 2001 Whisker & Yantz book suggests that Moses Wright was an apprentice of Peter White, based on a Pennsylvania long rifle that is signed Moses Wright on the barrel and P.W. on the lock.
1807-1809: The 1807 Colerain Township assessment lists Peter White as a gunsmith, with a valuation of $30.00. He had the same valuation in 1808, and in 1809 he owed a tax of $0.15.
1810: In the 1810 federal census of Colerain Township, Peter White is identified as the head of a household that had one male and one female in the 26 to 45 year age bracket, one male in the 10 to 16 year age bracket, and three males and two females in the under ten year age bracket.
1811-1814: The 1811 Colerain Township assessment identifies Peter White as a gunsmith with one cow and one horse and a valuation of $38.00. In 1812 he owed a tax of $0.19, In 1813 he owed a tax of $0.19, and was listed as having a horse and a dog. In 1814 he was enumerated as a gunsmith with one horse and a valuation of $20.00. In 1814, he owed a tax of $0.10, and had a valuation of $20.00.
1815: In 1815, Peter White's name is crossed out on the Colerain Township assessment, and included on the Bedford Township assessment with a valuation of $98.00.
1815: In January and February of 1815, Peter White placed an advertisement in the "True American" newspaper that states, "LABORERS ATTENTION The subscriber wants to employ a sober hand to make rails, and do some grubbing-either by the month, day, or job. Liberal wages will be given in cash, or good rifle guns. PETER WHITE Cumberland Valley, two miles from Bedford. January 26,1815."
1816-1817: Peter White is included on the 1816 Bedford Township tax list in 1816, and in 1817 owed $0.45 in taxes and had a valuation of $90.00.
1819: On April 5, 1819 Peter White began an advertisement in the "Genius of Liberty" newspaper indicating that he was in the gunsmithing business in Uniontown. The advertisement states, "PETER WHITE, GUNSMITH Respectively informs the public that he has commenced the Gunsmithing business in Uniontown near the market house; Where he intends making and repairing all kinds of guns, pistols, & c. He also intends sharpening and repairing Coffee Mills, Making Keys, & c. And other articles too tedious to mention. He hopes by strict attention to business to merit a share of the public patronage. Union, April 5."
1820: In the 1820 federal census of the borough of Union in Fayette County, Peter White is enumerated as the head of a household that had one male and one female in the 26 to 45 year age bracket, one male and one female in the 10 to 16 year age bracket, and two males and two females under ten years of age.
1826: A notice in the June 13, 1826 issue of the Genius of Liberty states, "MARRIED: On the 21st ult. by James Bryant, Esq. Mr. James Lynch to Miss Martha White daughter of Mr. Peter White of this borough."
1830: In the 1830 federal census of the borough of Union in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, Peter White is enumerated as the head of a household that had one male and one female in the 50 to 60 year age bracket, one female in the 20 to 30 year age bracket, one make in the 10 to 15 year age bracket, one male in the 5 to 10 year age bracket, and two females under five years of age.
1830: Page 252 of Fayette County Deed Book P contains the following article of agreement:
"This Article of Agreement made and concluded by and between Ewing Brownfield, Everhart Bierer, Isaac Skiles, & Isaac Beeson of the one part and Peter White of the other part WITNESSETH that the before named Ewing, Everhart, Isaac S., & Isaac P. do agree to put into the possession of the said Peter all their tools & materials which are enumerated in the annexed schedule, and which were formerly owned by the said Peter to be used by the said Peter in the business of Gunsmithing which business he shall carry on as their special agent and in their names. They do further agree to furnish said Peter with all necessary tools, materials &c. for carrying on the aforesaid business and give the said Peter as compensation for his labor and Services two thirds of the clear profits after deducting the cost of materials. The said Peter on his part doth agree to take good care of the tools and all other property connected with the business committed to his care, so as to be able at all times to render a complete account of the property and whenever called upon, to restore the tools in as good order as when delivered to him. And further he doth agree to become merely the special agent of the before named Ewing, Everhart, Isaac S. & Isaac P. for the purpose of manufacturing the property put into his hands by them and of disposing of it when manufactured for them, to account to them for the proceeds without any power to contract debts except when specially authorized by them.
In testimony whereof the parties above named hereto set their hands & seals this the __ day of August A.D. 1830.
Personally appeared before the Subscriber a Justice of the Peace in and for the County of Fayette Ewing Brownfield, Everhart Bierer, Isaac Skiles, Isaac Beeson & Peter White the parties to the foregoing Article of Agreement and acknowledged the same to be their Act and deed tor the purposes therein mentioned WITNESSETH my hand and seal the Thirty first day of August 1830. Recorded 6th September 1830. Clement Wood
SCHEDULE of the tools etc. put into the possession of Peter White by Ewing Brownfield, Isaac Skiles, & Isaac Beeson according to the annexed article of agreement.
2 Rifle Guns
1 Smooth Gun not deliv'd
108 Gun Barrels
14 Gun Locks
14 Gun Locks unfinshed
126 gun stocks
17 Bullet moulds
20 Tin chargers
1 Boring machine & 32 bits
8 Maple planks
40 Sets of Butts & Guards
31 Ram rods in rough
4 Brass guards & 17 butt pieces
1 Large vice
1 Pair large shears
1 Screw plate & taps
2 Screw plates & 7 taps
2 Small screw plates
14 12 inch files
35 some round some flat
3 Hand vises
6 Drills & bits
2 Drawing knives
8 Hammers & sledge
1 Oil stone
6 Pair tongs
2 Hand saws
2 tenant saws
2 Drill stocks
2 Wire nippers
15 Small chizzels some larger than others
Sundry hard chizzels
2 Heading tools
2 Sets of Crucibles
5 lbs spelter
15 lbs Sheet brass
15 lbs of pig brass
24 Pieces old Iron under bench
Sundry pieces of Iron on the floor & in the rack
40 pieces of Iron on shelf
1 book of sand paper
2 Small saws
20 Bottles with contents
1 Pair compasses
2 Hand axes
1 Pair steel yards not delivered
2 Boxes & contents
2 Sythe nibs
1 Drawer & sundries
1 Dung fork
2 hors & 1 spade
1 Barrel flour
1 Candle stand"
1834: Peter White is listed as a gunsmith in the "Memorial of the Inhabitants of Fayette County Against the recharter of the Bank of the United States" that was read in the U. S. House of Representatives on April 14, 1834. The petition is included in Volume 4 of the "Executive Documents, 23d Congress, 1st Session, 1833-4" as Doc. No. 343:
1834: Peter White is buried in the Historic Presbyterian Public Cemetery in Uniontown. His tombstone indicates that he died at age 56 on August 25, 1834. The following is from page 664 of the 1913 book "A History of Uniontown: The County Seat of Fayette County, Pennsylvania":
1835: Pages 47 and 48 of Fayette County Bond Book No. 2 contain the following:
"KNOW ALL MEN by these presents the we Hanah White, John White & William P. Wells all of the County of Fayette and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania are held and firmly bound unto the said Commonwealth, in the sum of Two Hundred Dollars lawful money of Pennsylvania to be paid to the Commonwealth, To which payment well and truely to be mad we bind ourselves jointly and severally for and in the whole our heirs executors and administrators firmly by these presents. Sealed with our seals, dated the twenty ninth day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty five. THE CONDITION of this obligation is such that if the above bounden Hannah White Administratrix of all and singular the goods, chattels and credits of Peter White late of Union Town Fayette County, deceased, do make or cause to be made a true and perfect inventory of all and singular, the goods, chattels and credits of the said deceased, which have or shall come to the hands, possession or knowledge of of her the said Hanah White or unto the hands and possession of any other person or persons for her, the same so made do exhibit or cause to be exhibited in the Registers office in the County of Fayette, at or before the twenty ninth day of October next ensuing; and the same goods chattles and credits and all other goods chattles and credits of the said deceased at the time of his death which at any time after shall come to the hands of and possession of the said Hanah White or unto the hands or possession of any other person or persons for her do well and truly administer to law, at or before the twenty ninth day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty six or when thereto legally required; and all the rest residue of the goods chattles and credits which shall be found remaining upon the said administration account, the same being first examined and allowed by the Orphans Court of the County of Fayette, shall deliver or pay to such person or persons respectively as the said Orphans Court by their decree or sentence, pursuant to the true intent and meaning of the several laws now in force in this Commonwealth, shall limit and appoint. And if it shall hereafter appear that any last will and testament was made by the said deceased, and the executor or executors therein named, do exhibit the same unto the Registers office making request to have it allowed and approbated accordingly. And if then the above bounden Hanah White her Executore or administrators being thereunto required do render and deliver the said letters of administration approbation of such testament being first had and made in the Registers office then this obligation to be void and of none effect or else to remain in full force and virtue.
Memo. that letters were granted to Hannah White on the 29th day of September 1835, She having been first duly qualified according to law.
her Hannah X White mark
Wm. P. Wells"
1843: The January 19, 1843 issue of the "Genius of Liberty" newspaper contains the following advertisement: "GUN-SMITHING The subscriber respectfully informs his friends and the public in general, that he continues to carry on the GUNSMTH Business, in all its branches, at the old stand near the court-house, and one door West of the hotel of MATTHEW ALLEN, Esq., where he will be always ready, except in case of sickness, to promptly execute all work in his line of business, in a neat and substantial manner, and on the most reasonable terms. ALL KINDS OF REPAIRING, &c. will be done on the shortest notice, so that persons from a distance can have their work to take home with them. He hopes, by the most diligent attention to business, and an earnest desire to please, to receive a share of the custom of the public. Uniontown, November 16, 1842 JOHN WHITE, Successor to PETER WHITE".
1982: The 1983 Whisker booklet indicates that the gravestone of Peter White was stolen in 1982.
The following is from page 149 of the 1913 book "A History of Uniontown: The County Seat of Fayette County, Pennsylvania":
The 1953 edition of "American Gun Makers" puts Peter White in Colerain Township of Bedford County in 1825 (sic), and poses the question as to whether this is the same Peter White who Uriah Fisher said was the first gunsmith located in Uniontown and someone who made flintlock rifles that were highly ornamented.
A pair of silver-decorated flintlock pistols by Peter White are on display at the Henry Ford Museum. Even the nose caps and side bolt plates are silver on these 14.75-inch-long pistols.
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