Daniel B. Border, Bedford County, Pennsylvania Gunsmith and Horologist

1826: According to his tombstone, Daniel Border was born April 29, 1826.

In his book "The Bedford County Rifle and its Makers", Calvin Hetrick indicates that Daniel B. Border was a son of William Border and (incorrectly, I think) indicates that Daniel B. Border was a brother of Samuel Border. The 2017 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford County, Pennsylvania" states that the parents of Daniel B. Border were William and Lydia (Blackburn) Border.

1826: The 1978 book "Blackburn and Allied Descendants of John Blackburn., Sr. ..." indicates that the gunsmith Daniel B. Border, son of William and Lydia Border, was born on April 29, 1826.

1833-1835: The 2017 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford County, Pennsylvania" nonsensically states that Daniel B. Border closed his first shop, which was in Schellsburg, in 1833 and then commenced business in Davidsville in Somerset County by April of 1834, and was joined in Davidsville by Samuel in 1835. This is obviously an error, because having been born on April 29, 1826 (as the 2017 book reports), Daniel B. Border would have only turned seven years old in 1833.

1849-1854: The 1983 booklet "Gunsmiths and Gunmakers of Bedford and Somerset Counties Pennsylvania 1770-1900" puts Daniel B. Border in Bedford Township from 1849 to 1854, and mentions that he was living on the land of John Amos, and possibly working for John Amos as an apprentice.

1849: The 2001 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford, Fulton, Huntingdon, & Somerset Counties" indicates that Daniel B. Border was living on the property of his gunsmith uncle John Amos in 1849. One can reasonably wonder if this indicates an apprenticeship, or some form of gunsmithing business relationship. A rifle exists with the marking "Amos & Border Company", and one can reasonably wonder if it was made while Daniel Border was living on the property of John Amos.

1850: Daniel B. Border is listed as a 24-year old Pennsylvania-born gunsmith in the 1850 census of Bedford Township that was "Taken Aug 12, 1850 by Thos Hughes".

1850: The 1978 book "Blackburn and Allied Descendants of John Blackburn., Sr. ..." indicates that Daniel Border's daughter Sarah was born in 1850.

1851: The 2001 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford, Fulton, Huntington, & Somerset Counties" indicates that Daniel Border manufactured 200 apple peelers for William Hartley in 1851, and also made a scale model of a mowing machine for William Hartley as a sales model.

1851: The 1978 book "Blackburn and Allied Descendants of John Blackburn., Sr. ..." indicates that Daniel Border's daughter Ella was born in 1851.

1854: The following advertisement is from the July 21, 1854 issue of the "Bedford Gazette", and identifies Daniel Border as a Bedford County gunsmith. This advertisement appeared in many issues of the "Bedford Gazette". I think the May 26, 1854 date indicates the date the advertisement commenced, and informs the typesetter when to pull the advertisement. This advertisement references the same shop location that John Border later described in his advertisements.

The preceding advertisement mentions double rifles. Plate 142 of Hetrick's book "The Bedford County Rifle and its Makers" shows an exceptional 38 caliber double rifle that was made by Daniel Border, and Hetrick indicated that he was aware of four double rifles made by Daniel Border. The rifle in Plate 142 has 42-1/2-inch long octagonal barrels that are 3/4-inch across the flats. The rifle is 57-inches long and weighs 10-1/2 pounds. The tails of the lock plates are bent inward to allow a narrow wrist. The rifle has a Bedford County-style patchbox with a Q-shaped finial and five perforations.

1855-1891: The 1983 booklet "Gunsmiths and Gunmakers of Bedford and Somerset Counties Pennsylvania 1770-1900" puts Daniel B. Border in the borough of Bedford from 1855 to 1891, and characterises him as a watchmaker, silversmith, gunsmith, and jeweler.

1855: The following advertisement is from the June 22, 1855 issue of the Bedford Gazette. In addition to mentioning that Daniel Border is in the clock and watch making business, it also mentions that he remains in the gunsmithing business.

1857: The following article is from the August 7 1857 issue of the "Bedford Inquirer and Chronicle". The article indicates that Daniel and John Border worked together to install the town clock in the cupola of the Bedford County courthouse.

1857: The 1978 book "Blackburn and Allied Descendants of John Blackburn., Sr. ..." indicates that Daniel Border's daughter Ella (born 1851) died in 1857.

1860: The following notice is from the February 3, 1860 issue of the "Bedford Inquirer", and indicates that Daniel Border is serving as the administrator of an estate.

1860: The following is from the 1884 book "History of Bedford, Somerset and Fulton Counties, Pennsylvania". It lists Daniel Border as a property owner in the borough of Bedford, Pennsylvania in 1860.

1861: The following notice is from the January 18, 1861 issue of the "Bedford Inquirer". It shows that Daniel Border was a resident of Bedford County in 1861.

1861: The following business directory list from the 1861 Walker map of Bedford County identifies Daniel Border as a Jeweler.

1861: The following image is from the 1861 Walker map of Bedford County. It shows the location of Major Washabaugh and a building owned by Daniel Border. Daniel Border's 1854 gunsmithing advertisement states that "he has removed his shop to the house in the east end of Bedford, one door west of the residence of Major Washabaugh". In his 1855 advertisement announcing his new business as a "Clock and Watch Maker and Dealer in Jewelry" Daniel Border stated, "He still continues in the Gunsmithing business, at his old stand, in the East end of town, where he has a good and competent workman constantly employed." John Border's 1856 gunsmithing advertisements state that he is in a "Shop at the east end of Bedford."An 1857 news item describes Daniel and John border installing the new town clock. John Border's 1858 and 1861 gunsmithing advertisements state that he is in a "Shop at the east end of town, one door west of the residence of Major Washabaugh". After John Border's death, David Defibaugh's gunsmithing advertisements state that he is in the "Workshop same as formerly occupied by John Border, deceased. " This shows that the same gunsmith shop was occupied sequentially by Daniel Border, John Border, and David Defibaugh. It also suggests that John Border may have been Daniel Border's "good and competent workman".

The proximity of the gunshop to the foundry and machine shop makes one wonder if the gunsmiths in Dan Border's shop utilized the foundry and machine shop for gun part castings and machining. The 1884 book "History of Bedford, Somerset and Fulton Counties, Pennsylvania" states, "About the year 1840, Daniel Washabaugh (an active business man in his day, a brewer, distiller, likewise a noted militia officer) erected the foundry buildings, but they remained unoccupied some two years, when a firm composed of Daniel Washabaugh, William Howser and Michael Bannan began work as founders and machinists..." One may also wonder to what extent this and other foundries and machine shops in the county influenced the uniformity seen in the Bedford County school of gunsmithing.

1864: The 2001 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford, Fulton, Huntington, & Somerset Counties" indicates that Daniel Border owned two log houses in the town of Bedford in the 1864 to 1873 timeframe.

1865: The following notice is from the June 9, 1865 issue of the "Bedford Inquirer". It indicates that Daniel Border is running for the Bedford County office of Treasurer.

1865: The following advertisements are from the October 27, 1865 issue of the Bedford Gazette. One advertisement is for Daniel Border's jewelry store, and the other is for David Defibaugh's gunsmithing services.

1866: The following item from the June 1, 1866 issue of the "Bedford Gazette" newspaper documents Lawrence Defibaugh, David Defibaugh, and Daniel Border doing work for the Bedford Borough. Daniel Border wound the town clock, and all three did repair work on hydrants.

1867: The following notice is from the April 12, 1867 issue of the "Bedford Inquirer", and shows that Daniel Border was engaged in a lawsuit against Jacob Reed.

1867: The 1978 book "Blackburn and Allied Descendants of John Blackburn., Sr. ..." indicates that Daniel Border's son William was born in 1867.

1869: Daniel's gunsmith son William R. Border was born July 18, 1869, according to his tombstone.

1870: The 2001 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford, Fulton, Huntington, & Somerset Counties" indicates that Daniel Border's property was assessed at $1,900.00 in 1870.

1870: The 1983 booklet "Gunsmiths and Gunmakers of Bedford and Somerset Counties Pennsylvania 1770-1900"indicates that Daniel B. Border had two log houses in 1870 and his property was valued at $1,900.00.

1871: Here is a photo of a neatly printed paper Daniel Border glued inside a clock that he cleaned in 1871.

1872-1873: In 2019 Morphy Auctions sold a unique lot of items made by Daniel Border for $12,000. One item was a business book that covers the period from January 1, 1872 to August 1873. It identifies the work that was done, the cost, and who the work was done for. The types of work included watch repairs, watch cleaning, watch making, engraving, and jewelry-related transactions. Another item was a brass key-type lock that is inscribed with Daniel Border's name and "Bedford PA. U.S.A." Another item was an engraved silver plaque of George Washington that is signed "Engraved by D. Border". The last item in the lot was a 40-caliber percussion rifle with a 43-1/4" long octagon barrel inscribed "D Border. Bedford. Pa" on the top flat. The front sight is silver and the rear sight is iron, mounted in a brass engraved sight block that is dovetailed to the barrel. The Bedford County style percussion lock plate is inscribed "DB" and has a classic Bedford County style hammer. The rifle has double set triggers, a four-piece patch box, a full-length curly maple stock, and a three screw brass lock bolt plate.

1874: The 1978 book "Blackburn and Allied Descendants of John Blackburn., Sr. ..." indicates that Daniel Border's son John was born in 1874.

1874: According to his tombstone, John Border (son of Daniel) was born on March 12, 1874.

1877: The following image from the Bedford portion of the 1877 book "County Atlas of Bedford Pennsylvania" shows the location of Daniel Border's jewelry shop two doors west of the Bedford Hotel.

1878: The following advertisement is from the 1878-1879 edition of "Farquhar's Official Directory of Bedford County, Pennsylvania".

1878: The following item is also from the 1878-1879 edition of "Farquhar's Official Directory of Bedford County, Pennsylvania".

1880: The 2001 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford, Fulton, Huntington, & Somerset Counties" indicates that William Hartley foreclosed on Daniel Border's $745.00 debt on September 10, 1880. The 2017 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford County, Pennsylvania" indicates that William Border was a cosigner on a loan that his son Daniel B. Border had made, and both Daniel and William experienced foreclosure in connection with the debt when the business of Daniel B. Border failed. These may be references to the same event.

1886: The 1983 booklet "Gunsmiths and Gunmakers of Bedford and Somerset Counties Pennsylvania 1770-1900" indicates that Daniel B. Border is included in the 1886 Farquar Directory (Presumably for Bedford County).

1891: Daniel Border is buried in the Bedford Cemetery, in Bedford, Pennsylvania. The cemetery is located at Latitude 40.026536, Longitude -78.501194. The tombstone of Daniel and Emma Border states: "Daniel Border born: Apr. 29, 1826 died: June 26, 1891 Emma V wife of Daniel Border born: Mar. 6, 1851 died: Jan. 14, 1902".

The 1978 book "Blackburn and Allied Descendants of John Blackburn., Sr. ..." indicates that Daniel B. Border's first wife was Amelia Grove and his second wife was Emma Little.

1891: The 1978 book "Blackburn and Allied Descendants of John Blackburn., Sr. ..." indicates that William Border's son Daniel B. Border died on June 26, 1891.

In his 1960 book "The Pennsylvania - Kentucky Rifle", Kauffman rates the craftsmanship of Daniel Border as among the best in the middle of the 1800s, and lauds his rifles as some of the best examples of Bedford County rifles. Kauffman states that Daniel Border lived in Bedford and is identified as a gunsmith on the tax rolls of Bedford Borough in 1849 and 1854. Kauffman also mentions Daniel Border's work as a silversmith, and his attempts at making perpetual motion machines. Kauffman also mentions that during a visit to the Colt firearms company, Samuel Colt introduced Daniel Border as a master gunsmith. The story about Daniel Border and Samuel Colt is also included in the 1971 book "The Kernel of Greatness" by Calvin Hetrick and Vaughn Whisker.

Kauffman's perpetual motion story would have come from R. Armstrong Farber, who assisted him in preparation of the material related to Bedford County, Pennsylvania. According to the 2017 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford County, Pennsylvania" R. Armstrong Farber told the story of children (including his father) retrieving Daniel Border's failed perpetual motion machines from the town dump to amuse themselves with.

In his book "The Bedford County Rifle and its Makers", Calvin Hetrick lavished praise on the quality, artistry, and proportions of rifles made by Daniel B. Border and describes a rifle by Daniel B. Border that has a single set trigger.

1901: The obituary of one of Daniel Border's children is published in the January 4, 1901 issue of the "Bedford Gazette" newspaper, as follows: "John Border died at the home of his mother, Mrs. Emma Border, Richard street, Bedford, Tuesday evening. The deceased was born in Bedford on March 13, 1874. He attended the public schools at this place and studied horology under his father, the late Daniel Border. About seven years ago he went to Hightstown, N. J., and worked in a jewelry store. He remained there three years and returned to Bedford last summer on account of ill health. Mr. Border was a skillful jeweler and watchmaker. He was a kind-hearted, companionable young man and a dutiful son. Two weeks before he died he joined the Lutheran church of Bedford. On Sunday the choir of that congregation, at the request of Mr. Border, went to his home and sang for him. His mother and a brother, William Border, survive him. The funeral services were held yesterday afternoon and were conducted by Rev. M. L. Culler, pastor of Trinity Lutheran church. Interment was made in the Bedford cemetery."

Was there an earlier gunsmith named Daniel Border?
The 2001 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford, Fulton, Huntington, & Somerset Counties" indicates that Daniel Border constructed a coffin for Francis Border, one of Samuel Border's children, in July of 1842. The 1953 edition of Gluckman's "American Gun Makers" puts Daniel Border in the borough and township of Bedford in about 1843. These items raise my eyebrows because Daniel B. Border was born in 1826, and would have only been about 16 years old in 1842 and about 17 years old in 1843. Even more eyebrow raising are statements in the 2001 book "Gunsmiths of Bedford, Fulton, Huntington, & Somerset Counties". That book says that Daniel Border closed his first gun shop, located in Shellsburg, in 1833, and was gunsmithing at Davidsonville (Somerset County) by April of 1834, where Samuel Border joined up with him in February of 1835. I don't know if this is an accidental cut and paste mistake with text relating to some other gunsmith, or if this relates to a different Daniel Border. Alternatively, it could represent typographical errors, where the intended dates were 1843, 1844, and 1845. Even that doesn't make sense if Daniel B. Border happened to be apprenticing with John Amos when living on the property of John Amos in 1849. Could these early date references to a Daniel Border be references to the brother-in-law of John Amos that Hetrick mentions? There are so many Border family members that such riddles are difficult to figure out.

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