Picture representing the 'Fort Cumberland' books.

'Fort Cumberland' Table of Contents, Volume 2

Introduction
The two-volume book "Fort Cumberland" describes the history of Cumberland, Maryland and the surrounding region before the mid-1780s founding of the town. The book is primarily a chronologically organized compilation of abstracts of and excerpts from original period documents. This approach allows the reader to experience the history of the region directly from the writings of the people who experienced the events.

The book explores the local settlement that existed before the French and Indian war and the war-related destruction and post-war recovery of the settlement. It also presents the complex factors that led to the war. The legislative and military history of the region following the war is also covered. The book is available from Amazon in print and Kindle e-book format. All proceeds benefit the Allegany County Historical Society.

To help you understand the scope of Volume 2, the copy of its Table of Contents that follows has been augmented with the subtitles (italicized) that appear in each chapter. Click here to see the Table of Contents of Volume 1.

Chapter 10. 1758: Fort Duquesne is captured
In 1758, Sharpe reports that the area this side of Fort Cumberland had been settled ● Dinwiddie sails for England on January 12, 1758 ● Governor Pownall has an idea for a central warehouse for Indian stores at Wills Creek ● Samuel S. Welder receives a promissory note ● Combat on Georges Creek early in February ● The French discover that Fort Cumberland is being strengthened ● Cresap petitions the government regarding October 1756 losses ● Lawsuits in Frederick County, Virginia ● Maryland troops at Fort Cumberland haven't been paid since October 8, 1757 ● Jonathan Plumer is involved with a criminal trial ● John McDonald is appointed to appraise an estate ● Sharpe reports to Abercromby about the troop funding situation ● Forbes requests that the road be mended between Conocheague Creek and Fort Cumberland ● Forbes mentions Fraser at Wills Creek ● Blair responds to the correspondence about the burglaries at Cresap's ● Teaching men to live without victuals ● A reference to a road from Shippensburg via Fort Frederick ● Waggoners petition for a Maryland road to Fort Cumberland ● Washington has doubts about the feasibility of a road from Fort Frederick ● John Nicholas is sued in Frederick County, Virginia ● The troops at Fort Cumberland are seven months without pay ● Forbes authorizes investigating a road from Raystown to the Youghiogheny ● A fort is tentatively planned for Raystown ● Forbes mentions an intent to build a fort at Raystown ● Washington's regiment is to march to Fort Cumberland ● Sharpe describes the Fort Cumberland Situation to St. Clair ● Bouquet wants men for road cutting and garrisoning Fort Cumberland ● A long day of writing ● Some of Washington's and Byrd's troops will be at Fort Cumberland ● Sharpe writes to St. Clair about payment and provisions for Fort Cumberland ● St. Claire receives junk carbines from Fort Cumberland ● Francis Fauquier becomes Governor of Virginia on June 7, 1758 ● Preparing to march men from Fort Frederick to Fort Cumberland ● The main army is to march through Pennsylvania ● Bring the wagons by the road we will open from Fort Cumberland ● How long will it take to cut a road from Fort Frederick to Fort Cumberland? ● A plan for getting troops in place at Fort Cumberland to cut the road ● Shelby is to set out tomorrow to blaze the road to Fort Cumberland ● Shelby's orders ● In case Forbes wants to open communication between Fort Frederick and Cumberland ● Forbes hopes to be soon able to provide back pay ● St. Clair receives a letter from Cresap ● Shot and shell are forwarded for Fort Cumberland ● Sharpe discredits Cresap's report ● Captain Shelby submits his road report ● Teagarden, Ross, and McCarty are paid for their services ● Tools are being forwarded ● Construction of Fort Bedford commences on June 28, 1758 ● Working on the road east of Fort Cumberland ● McCarty is to blaze the road to Town Hill Creek ● A road repair crew was fired on sometime around June 15, 1758 ● Washington is to open the road as far as Rays Town ● Captain Jocelyne is ordered to convoy the canoes up the Potomac ● Jonathan Plumer is mentioned in court records ● Washington proposes adopting Indian-style clothing ● 60 wagon loads of musket balls will be sent to Fort Cumberland ● The fellows prick up their Ears like a Deer ● Washington inquires about orders ● Daniel Pursley is paid for carrying artillery stores to Fort Cumberland ● The musket balls reach Old Town ● Dagworthy is believed to be opening the road from Fort Cumberland to Town Creek ● Fort Cumberland is believed to have 1,800 men ● Washington begins the road to Raystown ● Washington writes to Bouquet about various things ● Origin of the name of Raystown ● Washington's troops begin their encampment at Fort Cumberland on July 2, 1758 ● Sharpe mentions the road cutting activity between Raystown and Turkeyfoot ● The road is now a brush wood ● The road from Cumberland will be open very soon ● North Carolina companies join the road making effort ● An Indian attack near Fort Cumberland ● Murder near Fort Cumberland, and inability to assist Dagworthy with tools ● An update on cutting the road ● Washington sends out Indian war parties to harass the French ● Washington writes to Halkett about clothing the regiment ● Washington writes to Lieutenant Colonel Adam Stephen about regimental clothing ● Joseph Tomlinson is paid for wagon services on the new road ● The fort at Raystown is mentioned on July 17, 1758 ● Dagworthy is ordered to finish a bridge at Fort Cumberland ● A bridge is completed at Fort Cumberland ● Needing covers for gun locks ● The Virginians agitate against a new road through Pennsylvania ● Barton mentions fortifications and encampments at Rays Town ● Peachy is working on Braddock's road ● Cattle are moved to Cresap's planation ● Dagworthy is ordered to march to Raystown ● Appropriations are made for paying the troops and Dr. Ross ● Washington writes to Bouquet on August 2, 1758 about the road for Forbes' campaign ● A Virginian's view of the situation ● Washington reports on the wagon convoy ● Washington sent out a detachment to waylay French parties on the road ● Forbes writes about Washington's resistance to the new road ● Sending Corn from Fort Cumberland ● Washington reports to Bouquet ● Can Sharpe cover Fort Cumberland so the Virginians can accompany Forbes? ● The Fort at Raystown is mentioned on August 16, 1758 ● Finney is marching to Fort Cumberland with about 26 men ● Bouquet wants strong parties out ● Washington responds to Bouquet's letter ● Washington reports to Bouquet ● Washington wonders if he will remain in command after Sharpe arrives ● Sharpe thinks he can bring 250 men to temporarily hold down the fort ● Sharpe is to delay the departure to Fort Cumberland ● The convoy from Winchester has arrived ● Sharpe hopes to be able to perform as promised to garrison Fort Cumberland ● Washington reports to Bouquet from Fort Cumberland ● An explanation of why the Maryland troops are needed at Fort Cumberland ● Forbes reports the death of Captain Bullen ● Baker and Ross are paid for contributions to the western expedition ● Washington writes a gloomy letter ● A report on the ammunition stored at Fort Cumberland ● Washington reveals that his road opinions are related to trade rivalry with Pennsylvania ● Washington requests 100 wagons to be sent to Fort Cumberland with flour and corn ● Washington writes to Bouquet, hoping to march with packhorses instead of wagons ● The target date for Sharpe's forces to be at Fort Cumberland is September 10th or 12th ● How will Sharpe identify friendly Indians? ● Washington's invalids to stay at Fort Cumberland ● Thomas Barton writes about the blockhouses ● Thomas Barton describes the fort ● A British map that was captured at the Battle of Monongehela ● A soldier's memorial at Fort Cumberland in 1758, regarding November 1756 service ● Only three days of flour remain at Fort Cumberland ● Sharpe writes from Fort Cumberland ● Washington was ordered to join Mercer at Raystown ● Fort Cumberland supply inventory, September 15, 1758 ● Provisions are to be sent to Fort Cumberland on September 17, 1758 ● Surprise that Rutherford has not supplied Fort Cumberland ● Two hogsheads of liquor to be sent to Fort Cumberland ● Washington is to temporarily leave 100 men at Fort Cumberland ● Sharpe reports that the volunteers will want to leave the fort by October 10 ● A September 27, 1758 explosion at Fort Cumberland ● Sharpe reports that the Virginians have 20 men fit for duty at Fort Cumberland ● The Virginians complain that the Marylanders have taken some of their horses ● Halkett requests ammunition be forwarded from Fort Cumberland ● Washington's opinion on which road Forbes should follow is disdained by some ● Thank you for taking care of our good Fort Cumberland ● Wagons are discovered in a large storehouse at Fort Cumberland ● Plumer and Cresap are mentioned in court records ● Wheels are belatedly found at Fort Cumberland ● I have nothing to expect from Maryland ● Washington describes the explosion to Governor Fauquier ● Sharpe describes the explosion to Baltimore ● Jenny Frazer is at Raystown in November 1758 ● Washington continues to agitate for the use of Braddock's road ● Colonel Cresap is involved in a Virginia lawsuit ● Fort Cumberland is ordered to disarm a group of Cherokees ● Fort Duquesne is captured on November 25, 1758, and renamed Pittsbourgh ● A summary of the Forbes expedition ● Maryland troops are ordered to Fort Cumberland in late November ● The men at Fort Pitt are in pitiful condition in December 1758 ● Logstown was rebuilt by the French ● Condition of the road between Fort Cumberland and Cresap's ● Fort Bedford was named by December 28, 1758 ● A birth near Fort Cumberland in 1758 ● The cost of carrying goods from Fort Cumberland to Redstone during the war ●

Chapter 11. 1759: Burd departs for Redstone
Isaac Baker's residence ● A description of Fort Frederick ● Fort Cumberland is losing men to desertion due to a lack of pay ● An accused horse embezzler from Fort Cumberland ● Bouquet writes to the men at Fort Cumberland about their pay ● Sending horses to Fort Cumberland to haul hay ● A sergeant and 14 men desert Fort Cumberland ● Bouquet writes that the garrison intends to abandon the fort for lack of pay ● The smallpox is bad at Fort Cumberland ● Money and people problems at Fort Cumberland ● Flour and meal are in transit to Pittsburgh via Fort Cumberland ● A court martial at Fort Cumberland for desertion ● Pearis writes to Bouquet about the court martial ● Renting a house at Cumberland in 1759 ● Daniel Pursel is involved in a Virginia lawsuit ● 196 packhorses headed west from Fort Cumberland ● Samuel Stansby Welder and Thomas Cresap are involved in a court case ● Bouquet has an extremely low opinion of Sir John St. Claire ● The road westward from Fort Frederick toward Cresap's ● Kenny reaches Cresap's ● Ejecting two drunken women from the rented house at Cumberland ● Lieutenant Linn is temporarily in command at Fort Cumberland ● Ourry proposes a canoe at Collier's place ● The rain is impacting the waggoners' profit margins ● Drying out some wet items ● Magnus Tate visits Fort Cumberland in 1759 ● The bridge over Wills Creek was mended on February 20, 1759 ● Finding Kenny's wayward horse ● Providing firewood ● The Captain's wife is present at Fort Cumberland in 1759 ● Kenny sends his horse and a letter back east ● Brury Cox was living about five miles below Cresap in 1759 ● Reinforcements from Raystown arrive at Fort Cumberland ● Maryland forces at Fort Cumberland reduced to one fourth their original number ● Kenny goes fishing then becomes ill ● The remaining men at Fort Cumberland will leave if they aren't paid by the 15th ● Amherst hopes to settle the issue of troops at Fort Cumberland with the governor ● Cold weather and a visit by traders returning from Pittsburgh ● The garrison at Fort Cumberland is reduced to a few men ● Burn Fort Pitt and retreat to Ligonier or Fort Cumberland if attacked ● A former student makes a pot pie for Kenny ● Lightfoot left the packhorses at Siding Hill ● Civilians at Fort Cumberland in 1759 ● Pasture four miles from Fort Cumberland ● A civilian lad at Fort Cumberland in 1759 ● Pearis borrows money to pay the troops at Fort Cumberland ● Three young friends try to desert from Fort Cumberland ● Packhorses leave Fort Cumberland, but Kenny stays ● Samuel returns to Fort Cumberland for a tarp ● Arguing against using heathen names for the month ● A civilian is flogged at Fort Cumberland in 1759 ● Six horses lost from the packhorse train ● George Clark's hired man is looking for missing horses ● The horses are still missing ● The creeks are too high for hunting the horses ● Walking up along the river ● Various houses and individuals along the river at Fort Cumberland in 1759 ● The floodwater abates ● A bridge over Wills Creek is thought to be flood proof ● A canoe is overturned by a tree drifting in the current ● Searching in the water for lost goods ● Cutting up hide for ropes ● Lodging at the Little Meadows ● Finding a human skull in a swamp ● One of Clark's horses is found ● Money appropriated for building a road between Fort Frederick and Fort Cumberland ● Sending men six miles up Wills Creek to look for lost horses ● Sending off Joseph Wright with four horses ● Drunken fighting at Fort Cumberland ● Finishing packing the goods ● A driver has an injured leg ● Another wife at Fort Cumberland in 1759 ● Sending off to Cresap's for sugar ● George French is involved in a slander lawsuit ● Waiting for the milk cows ● Kenny mentions Collier's place ● Fauquier writes to Sharpe about paying Walker for provisions left at Fort Cumberland ● Wolves destroy some of the ropes at Bear Camp ● Crossing the Youghiogheny River ● Reaching the Great Meadows ● What to do with the Maryland officers remaining at Fort Cumberland? ● Sharpe replies to Fauquier about paying Walker ● A man is scalped and a boy taken prisoner near Fort Cumberland ● Only 13 men guarding Fort Cumberland in dangerous times ● Fort Cumberland is in danger in the June 4 timeframe ● A lawsuit against Cresap is abated ● Samuel Plum is involved in litigation ● Ross is being prosecuted for allegedly stealing two steers from Thomas Cresap ● Report of an impending attack on Fort Pitt or Ligonier ● Livingston arrives at Fort Bedford ● About 50 acres of hay can be mowed near Fort Cumberland ● Burd has no tools to open Braddock's road ● A letter references opening the communication with Fort Pitt ● Requesting Dr. Walker to put 500 horses into service from Fort Cumberland ● A proposal to open a road from Fort Cumberland to Pittsburgh ● A proposal to use men from Fort Cumberland to escort supplies ● Gordon wants people to bring their produce to Fort Cumberland ● Bouquet approves Stephens' plan to use the Cumberland road to supply Pittsburgh ● 500 sheep and 64 wagons at Fort Cumberland ● Cattle are to be appraised at Fort Cumberland and escorts are to be provided ● Rutherford is asked to purchase 200 horses and put them in service ● Finnie's petition states that he commenced road repairs on August 4 ● Matters of transportation and supply ● 100 men march from Fort Bedford ● Catawba Indians are marching via Fort Cumberland ● Gordon requests a post at the Great Crossing ● John McDonald is replaced as constable ● Opening the road to Monongahela ● Why Burd was sent to Redstone ● The storehouses at Fort Cumberland are in bad repair ● Sutlers waggoners retire to Fort Cumberland from Pittsburg ● Burd is to repair the storehouse at Fort Cumberland ● Letters from Bouquet about supplies ● Mercer writes to Bouquet about supplies ● The packhorses are headed to Fort Cumberland ● Thomas Cresap is listed in a Frederick County court record ● A communication by river to Pittsburg ● Pack horses loaded with flour arrive at Fort Cumberland ● Bouquet reports that Burd and Shippen are gone to Fort Cumberland ● Forage for the lame horses at Fort Cumberland ● Horses to be sent from Fort Cumberland to Winchester, cattle to go by Braddock's road ● Twelve carpenters at Fort Cumberland ● Burd updates Bouquet ● Horses are gone to Fort Cumberland ● The road is too bad to send wagons to Fort Cumberland ● Colonel Burd's forces are on the march westward of Fort Cumberland ● Rutherford commits to supplying Fort Cumberland ● Repairing Fort Cumberland, and making hay four miles below the fort ● The improved condition of Braddock's road ● Asking for instructions regarding deserters ● Burd reports that Braddock's road needs improvement ● Part of the First Battalion of Pennsylvania is left at Fort Cumberland as an escort ● Beef and forage ● Fort Cumberland was under-provisioned in September of 1759 ● A letter about paying for supplies for the Indians between Cumberland and Winchester ● Fort Cumberland is to be supplied by contractors ● Instructions for the commander at Fort Cumberland ● Burd identifies the location of Braddock's grave ● Blythe will be assigned to Cumberland ● Rutherford is to supply Fort Cumberland ● The William Ross will is probated ● Reaching the Great Meadows on the return trip from Pittsburgh ● Hoops instructs Walker about supplying Fort Cumberland ● Cattle were sent to Fort Cumberland ● Bouquet writes about supplies for Burd, and the lack of tools to repair Braddock's road ● Reaching the Great Crossing on the return trip from Pittsburgh ● Meeting people from the South Branch at the upper crossing of the Youghiogheny River ● Hoops promises that Fort Cumberland will be kept supplied ● Meeting a civilian on the road, delivering liquor to Redstone ● A request to send invalids to Fort Cumberland ● Stanwix wants to talk to Bouquet about repairing Fort Cumberland ● Reaching Georges Creek, with little food left ● Smallpox at Fort Cumberland in September 1759 ● Woodward is commanding at Fort Cumberland ● One of Kenny's horses has been impressed into the King's service ● Mercer is short on cash for supplies ● Paying for biscuits with rum ● Making up loads for the packhorses ● The Virginia packhorses leave supplies for Fort Bedford at Fort Cumberland ● If possible, send flour, not meal ● A livestock-related update ● Burd mentions Nemacolin's creek, near present-day Brownsville ● Making plans for the first half of 1760 ● Paying Livingston for wagon transportation ● A reference to contractors supplying Fort Cumberland ● Burd camps at the mouth of Nemacolin's Creek ● Fort Cumberland needs medicine ● The road from Cumberland to Red Stone is in bad order ● Assurance of providing supplies for Burd's garrison and Fort Cumberland ● Juggling horses, assuaging bruised feelings ● Burd's letter mentions Nemacolin's Creek, and the desperate lack of food at Redstone ● Beef cattle to be sent to Fort Cumberland ● Fort Cumberland fails to supply Burd's forces ● Bouquet writes a detailed letter to George Mercer ● Cumberland can have some nails out of cask no. 1 ● Flour and forage arrive at Fort Cumberland ● Kenny describes Cock's residence and returns to Fort Cumberland ● John Slater's wife was at Fort Cumberland in 1759 ● Callender is waiting to purchase more horses at Fort Cumberland ● Packhorses and cattle coming to Fort Cumberland ● No word from Fort Cumberland ● A request for orders concerning the provisioning of Fort Cumberland ● Rutherford's cattle are refused at Fort Cumberland due to their size ● A herd of cattle arrive at Fort Cumberland ● Some wagon horses are unfit for hauling ● Kenny leaves Fort Cumberland for home ● Walker is to lay in provisions at Cumberland ● A proposed bridge at the Little Crossing ● Ramsay complains of having his flour inspected at Fort Cumberland ● A memorandum about the cattle refused at Fort Cumberland ● Building a bridge at the Little Crossing ● Directions about procuring beef for the two crossings ● Bouquet saves Burd's men at Redstone from starvation ● Bouquet is the source of the cattle size requirement ● A disgruntled wagon master ● A treaty is concluded at Pittsburgh on October 27, 1759 ● Taking forage from Fort Cumberland to Fort Burd ● Galbraith defends inspecting Ramsay's flour ● Burd writes about the supplies needed at the big and little crossings ● It's okay to receive meal of the sound and good kind ● Flour sent to a party at the Great Crossings ● Reed writes to Bouquet about the coarse meal ● Virginian forces are ordered to Fort Cumberland ● Ourry implements Bouquet's instructions ● Walker proposes victualing Pittsburgh, Redstone, and Fort Cumberland ● McGearry is late coming to Fort Cumberland ● Frazier continues his trade at Fort Bedford ● Read writes to Bouquet about Rutherford ● A man absconds with a horse, and rides it to Fort Cumberland ● Robert Callender purchases horses at Fort Cumberland ● Blyth forwards salt and forage ● Bouquet is heading to Fort Cumberland ● Callander's house has been lost to fire ● Enough storehouses repaired at Fort Cumberland ● Disappointment from Virginia ● A new bridge at the Little Crossings ● Flour Inspection reports at Fort Cumberland ● John Nicholls is appointed to serve the Old Town Hundred ● Mercer recommends a bridge over Wills Creek ● Bouquet's puppies are well ● Wheeling and dealing in flour ● Blyth writes to Bouquet ● Failure to provide forage and wagons ● Reporting troubles at Fort Cumberland ● The horses at Fort Cumberland are in sorry shape ● Bridge work west of Fort Cumberland ● Mercer provides instructions to Graham ● Horses are to be used to transport salt ● The King's horses are moved to Cresap's place ● Certificate of Mr. Graham against Mr. Livingston, Fort Major at Cumberland ● Addressing the Virginia accounts ● Ordinance stores at Fort Cumberland ● Graham presents his certificate to Bouquet ● John Frazier was living at Fort Bedford in 1759 ● A 1759 description of the cause of the war ● Fort Cumberland list of horses lost in service during 1759 ● Martin's is illustrated at Georges Creek on a period map

Chapter 12. 1760: Lord Calvert approves a manor
Preparations for the Western Department in 1760 ● Livingston reports on salt deliveries ● Two Kegs of whiskey for Fort Cumberland ● Packhorse matters ● Cultivated land near Fort Cumberland in 1760 ● Samuel Welder becomes the administrator of the Christopher Gist estate ● Few provisions are available at Fort Cumberland ● Country people at Fort Cumberland ● A few hogs dropped off at Fort Cumberland ● Samuel Plum is selling rum and cider in 1760 ● New watercraft on the Potomac ● Hogs have been sent to Bedford and Cumberland ● Cresap sues Welder ● Flour at Fort Cumberland will be transported west ● Welder writes a promissory note to Thomas Prather ● A proposal for a military road that would finally be cut 19 years later ● Sharpe proposes that the proprietor's manor be located west of Fort Cumberland ● Colonel Byrd writes about Fort Cumberland ● Colonel Byrd is ordered to Fort Cumberland ● Settlers are pushed to and fro ● Colonel Byrd ordered from Fort Cumberland to Fort Bedford ● Joseph Mounts obtains land on Braddocks Road ● Thomas Cresap is involved in two lawsuits ● Lord Calvert approves a manor west of Fort Cumberland ● Thomas Cresap makes an offer to Bouquet ● Turner gives Welder power of attorney ● Thomas Cresap obtains lot no. 62 on the South Branch of the Potomac River ● Isaac Collier purchases Hart's Delight ● Thomas Cresap describes the size of his farm in a threatening August 30, 1760 letter ● Thomas Cresap serves on a Virginia jury. ● A 1760 decision to repair the Wills Creek storehouse ● Frederick Ice proves an October 1760 bill before a magistrate ● Local appointments by the Frederick County, Maryland court ● A few Virginians are to be left at Fort Cumberland ● Welder is sued in his capacity of administrator of Gist's estate ● Frederick Ice is a chain carrier on a local survey ● Welder sues in his capacity of administrator ● Two cabins on the Cresap's Kindness survey ● A falling out between Major Stewart and Joseph Galbraith ● Monckton recommends that the Virginia troops garrison Fort Cumberland ● A 1760 description of the cause of the war

Chapter 13. 1761: Bouquet's proclamation
Fort Cumberland is reported as having double log and earth construction ● Bouquet helps to resolve a quarrel ● Virginians being sent to garrison Fort Cumberland in 1761 ● Colonel Bouquet writes to Major Livingston on January 24, 1761 ● The Virginians marched to Fort Cumberland in January 1761 ● Stewart's regiment is in dire need of replacement shoes and clothing ● What to do with the prisoner who escaped from Fort Cumberland? ● Wheeling and dealing in cattle, which had to be fed with corn from Fort Cumberland ● The identity of one of the casualties on Patterson Creek ● Daniel Cresap and Evan Shelby are involved in a court matter ● Neal Oqullion is involved in a court case ● Maryland refuses to raise men to garrison Fort Cumberland ● Neal Oqullion posts a recognizance bond ● 13 lots with houses on Patterson's Creek ● Ice receives a warrant for land on the North Branch ● Maryland once again votes against troops for Fort Cumberland in 1761 ● Herman Husband is involved in court matters ● John Long is involved in a court matter ● Thomas Cresap asks Bouquet to be a candidate for county representative ● Frazier bills Mary Wood ● Local men involved in a Virginia survey for Adam McCarty ● Property surveyed for John Nicholas, Sr. ● Nehemiah Martin serves as a chain carrier ● Hamlin leases property on Patterson Creek ● Estate appraisals by Cresap, Walker, and Williams ● Jonathan Plummer is sued by Thomas Cresap ● Nulla Bona ● Trading between Pittsburg and Fort Cumberland ● A complex Indian situation ● Jonathan Plumer is involved with Ninian Hamilton in a court matter ● Bouquet requests supplies and ammunition for Fort Pitt ● Bouquet is robbed of a large sum of money ● Nathanial Tomlinson is involved in a court matter ● John Long is involved in a court matter ● Oqullion and Welder are involved in court matters ● Purchasing provisions from neighbors in 1761 ● Henry Bouquet's 1761 proclamation against settling west of the Allegheny Mountain ● Thomas Cresap and Richard Graham are involved in a court matter ● Bouquet sends the proclamation to Fort Cumberland for posting ● Tomlinson is appointed as constable of the Old Town Hundred ● Various individuals are involved in court matters ● John Walker obtains land in Virginia ● The Old Town Hundred list from 1761

Chapter 14. 1762: Indians request supplies
Joseph Tomlinson was improving the Wills Town tract in 1762 ● Joseph Tomlinson obtains a warrant for other property west of Fort Cumberland in 1762 ● The Virginians at Fort Cumberland are to be discharged ● What to do with the stores at the crossing? ● McDonald has men at the Crossings and Cumberland ● Fort Pitt cannot relieve the men at the Crossings and Fort Cumberland ● Fort Cumberland receives a brass four-pounder cannon ● A 1762 scheme to make the Potomac more navigable ● The Virginians depart from Fort Cumberland ● A cannon and swivel guns are found at Pearsal's fort ● Providing liquor to Indians is prohibited ● A list of the men of the Virginia Regiment from 1762 ● Job Pearsal sells property on the South Branch ● Oqullion is involved in a Frederick County lawsuit ● A payment for hauling flour to Fort Cumberland in March of 1762 ● Bouquet mentions Thomas Cresap in a negative light ● McDonald mentions desertion at Fort Cumberland ● Thomas Gist is rewarded for bravery ● The location of John Nicholl's house is identified ● Thomas Hutchins requests that Fredrick Ice be taken to Fort Pitt ● Eyre identifies the location of Braddock's grave ● Three deserters are deposed at Fort Cumberland ● Eyre describes the state of Fort Cumberland on April 7-8, 1762 ● Eyre describes the condition of the roads ● Two deserters are returned to Fort Cumberland ● Fort Cumberland sends a few blankets and a tent westward ● The Virginia residence of George Williams is identified ● The pay for Fort Burd is waiting at Fort Cumberland ● Bladen's paperwork is handed in late, on May 16, 1762 ● McDonald has leave to go to Fort Cumberland to get the pay for Fort Burd ● Sneaking prohibited rum past Fort Cumberland ● Livingston forwards powder from Fort Cumberland in May of 1762 ● Local chain carriers used on a Knobley Mountain survey ● Cresap writes Sharpe about an Indian problem ● Israel Christie is murdered and robbed on his return from the Cherokee nation ● Improvements at the Great Crossings ● A June, 25 1762 letter concerning deserters and transport of ammunition ● Carraige of, Two Boxes of Ball from this to Redstone as several has Applyd to me to Carry the same Governor Sharpe writes to Amherst about Cresap's letter ● 'Indian Fields" is resurveyed ● Kenny reports that Killbuck tried to kill Thomas Cresap during the late war ● Messengers are overtaken, and captured or killed ● Letters to Bouquet from Enoch Innis, his father-in-law Thomas Cresap, and Livingston ● Amherst replies to Sharpe's June 26, 1762 letter about Cresap's concern ● Indians request to be supplied at Cresap's, advised to go by Fort Cumberland instead ● Joseph Tomlinson is involved in a court matter ● A 1762 tour from Fort Cumberland ● Neal Oqullion is involved in a court matter ● A reward is offered for deserters delivered to Fort Cumberland ● A slave transaction in Hampshire County

Chapter 15. 1763: One war ends and another begins
Livingston has gone a long time without pay ● Five men sent to Fort Cumberland to guard the magazines ● The treaty of Paris is signed on February 10, 1763, ending the Seven Years War ● The Virginians at Fort Cumberland are disbanded ● Cresap leases Virginia land to William Haggard ● William Young leases property from Thomas Cresap ● The Ohio Company advertises Wills Creek property for sale and lease in 1763 ● Memorial of the Ohio Company to the General Assembly of Virginia ● A reply regarding the request for providing Indian supplies at Cresap's ● Samuel Plum receives a license for selling liquor ● An April 20, 1763 letter requests leave to work some fields near Fort Burd ● A survey for James Spurgeon ● Cresap sues Walter Drenning over a debt to Hugh Parker ● John Greenfield is involved in Virginia property transactions ● The beginning of the siege of Detroit ● An Indian letter pertaining to the request for supplies ● Families living near the site of Somerfield in May 1763 ● Mynord Johnson's residence is mentioned in a 1763 survey ● News of the beginning of Pontiac's war is received at Fort Pitt ● A June 1, 1763 journal entry documents a house on Georges Creek ● Building the new storehouse and repairing the old in 1763 ● Indians acting suspiciously at Fort Pitt on June 2, 1763 ● An Indian priest sends his wife and cattle to Fort Cumberland ● The Fort Burd garrison is reportedly retreating to Fort Cumberland ● Welder witnesses a deed several weeks before he is murdered ● The Indians complain of not receiving free goods at Old Town ● A garrison and suttlers from Fort Burd arrive at Fort Cumberland on June 9, 1763 ● Fort Cumberland is crowded with country people who are repairing the fort ● Livingston purchases gun flints ● Powder is needed at Fort Cumberland in June 1763 ● A June 16, 1763 advertisement describes the proposed town at Wills Creek ● Fort Cumberland sends reinforcements to Fort Pitt ● Eleven people killed near Fort Bedford on June 17, 1763 ● A biological attack on the Indians ● A June 21, 1763 letter describes attacks on settlements near Fort Bedford ● The siege of Fort Pitt begins in June 1763 ● Murder and abduction near Fort Bedford in late June 1763 ● A reference to the intent to form a town at the mouth of Wills Creek in 1763 ● Mercer papers relating to the Ohio Company of Virginia" ● A July 3, 1763 report on Pontiac's war from Paxton ● Bouquet writes that several British forts are taken, and Fort Pitt was attacked ● Aaron Wallace is abducted near Fort Bedford on July 3, 1763 ● Delivering flour to Fort Cumberland, and then musket balls to Fort Bedford ● Henry Rowe and William Anderson were killed near Fort Cumberland on July 4, 1763 ● A letter intimating settlers between Fort Frederick and Fort Cumberland in 1763 ● Thomas Cresap's fort is filled with refugees ● The fort at Presque Isle is captured ● Henry Horshaw is beheaded near Fort Bedford on July 12, 1763 ● Bouquet writes that he is going to try to infect the Indians with smallpox ● Four children scalped on the South Branch on July 14, 1763 ● An attack at Oldtown in mid-July 1763 ● Houses along Wills Creek north of the Narrows in July 1763 ● Fredericktown contributes to the support of Cresap's fort ● Orders to transport musket balls from Fort Cumberland to Fort Bedford ● Robertson's Light Infantry to be at Fort Cumberland as an escort ● Lemuel Barritt's rangers sign up at Fort Cumberland for a two-month tour ● Enoch Innis reports that he was living at Fort Cumberland in 1763 ● A July 26, 1763 letter from Fort Cumberland requests reinforcements ● A request for militia to help to garrison Fort Cumberland ● The 'Pennsylvania Gazette' describes the mid-July 1763 attacks at Colonel Cresap's ● A July newspaper article gives a gruesome account of murder on the Winchester road ● Barrett is to march to Fort Ligonier ● The general disposition at Fort Cumberland on August 1, 1763 ● Peace with France is announced in Maryland ● Barett's men sortie from Fort Cumberland to engage in the 1763 battle of Bushy Run ● Barrett suggests the winning strategy ● Ormsby credits Barrett with the winning strategy at Bushy Run ● Bouquet's description of the first day of battle ● Bouquet's description of the second day of the battle of Bushy Run ● James Smith's commentary on Bushy Run ● Captain Stanton is killed on the South Branch on August 9, 1763 ● Bouquet writes from Fort Pitt on August 11, 1763 ● The impact of the battle of Bushy Run ● George Washington takes a sarcastic swipe at Adam Stephen ● Captain Ourry reaches Fort Cumberland with 400 men ● Colonel Stephen has militia at Fort Cumberland and Fort Bedford ● An August 29, 1763 letter mentions the battle of Bushy Run ● Colonel Stephen reaches Fort Cumberland with volunteers from Virginia ● A scouting party engages a party of Indians about 25 miles from Fort Cumberland ● Fort Cumberland can have fresh meat ● Investigating the issuance of provisions to refugees at Fort Cumberland in September 1763 ● The Royal Americans at Fort Cumberland are to go to Fort Pitt ● Instructions concerning the feeding of refugees in September 1763 ● The administrator of Welder's estate is summoned ● The Royal Proclamation on North America, October 7, 1763 ● Feeding refugees at Fort Cumberland ● Men from Fort Cumberland reach Fort Bedford in October 1763 ● All is quiet from Philadelphia to Fort Pitt on October 10, 1763 ● A Maryland act for prohibiting trade with the Indians ● The Royal Americans at Fort Cumberland in October 1763 ● A substantial quantity of small arms was removed in the circa 1763-time frame ● Colonel Stephen offers to send flour to Fort Cumberland in November of 1763 ● Joseph Mounts becomes constable of the Cumberland Hundred ● A reward is granted for the scalps of Indians killed at Cresaps and Georges Creek ● Writing to Innis at Fort Cumberland about hogs for Fort Pitt ● Enoch Innis witnesses a deed ● Lemuell Barrett is called to court over the estate of Samuel Welder

Chapter 16. 1764: Bouquet prevails at Muskingum
A traders' lawsuit ● Vachel Hinton is involved in a lawsuit ● A land transaction on Patterson Creek ● Richard Morris is appointed constable of the Old Town Hundred ● Thomas Cresap is involved in two lawsuits, one related to trespass ● People living on the Cumberland road ● Nathan Wells and John Nicholas are involved in court cases ● Michael Cresap is serving as the administrator for the estate of Samuel Stansby Weldor ● Flour sent to the troops is refused ● Reserving 10,000 acres for the Lord Proprietary ● Do not feed the militia coming to Fort Cumberland unless they have an order for it ● Closing the accounts from the last campaign ● A larger garrison is requested for Fort Cumberland in June of 1764 ● Joseph Tomlinson is involved in a court matter ● Inhabitants are prohibited from receiving provisions at Fort Cumberland in June of 1764 ● Fort Cumberland is garrisoned ● Bouquet proposes storing supplies at Fort Cumberland for a march to Fort Pitt ● Thomas Cresap asks where his volunteers should meet Bouquet ● No provisions for troops arriving at Fort Cumberland ● Ordering Butchers, Salters, and Coopers to Fort Cumberland ● June 24, 1764 letters from Fort Cumberland ● William Teagard is involved in a Maryland court case ● A plan to store supplies at Fort Cumberland for an expedition against the Ohio Indians ● A birth near Fort Cumberland in July of 1764 ● Fred Dunfield is involved in a court case ● Tracks seen in the woods near Muddy Creek in July of 1764 ● The fort and barracks are untenable in July of 1764 ● August 1764 orders to relieve Lieutenant McIntosh at Fort Cumberland ● Macintosh is relieved at Fort Cumberland on August 20, 1764 ● Men are moved From Fort Cumberland to Fort Bedford in August of 1764 ● Enoch Innes is involved in a court matter ● A woman was killed near Fort Cumberland on August 25, 1764 ● A report of the provisions at Fort Cumberland is forwarded in August of 1764 ● Cresap sues Thomas Walker ● Lieutenant McDonald goes out to meet approaching Indians in September of 1764 ● The Virginia volunteers to be at Fort Cumberland, according to a September 1764 letter ● Cresap sues in his capacity of Hugh Parker's executor ● A 1764 military pass for the trader Edmund Moran is signed at Fort Cumberland ● Fort Cumberland is reported as being repaired ● A store, tavern, and families at Fort Cumberland ● Enoch Innis was living in Maryland in 1764 ● Bouquet's 1764 expedition results in a peace conference with the Indians ● The militia retakes a prisoner from an Indian raiding party ● A court summons for Thomas Spencer ● Colonel Bouquet writes from Muskingum ● The Virginia volunteers are to march to Fort Cumberland ● No payment for horses that gave out on the way to Virginia via Cumberland ● Hoping to obtain horses at Fort Cumberland ● The Virginia prisoners are to be delivered home via Fort Cumberland ● Orders concerning Indian traders are issued to the forts in November 1764 ● Members of the 42nd were in garrison at Fort Cumberland in November 1764 ● William Ross's son Taverner is among the returned captives ● Charges against Colonel Adam Stephen are considered ● Reporting on the number of refugees fed at Fort Cumberland ● Reporting on horse thieves and the return of captives ● Ennis is minding the store at Fort Cumberland ● The estimated date of construction for Michael Cresap's stone house

Chapter 17. 1765: Resistance to the Stamp act
John Morris obtains property on the east side of Martins Mountain ● Western immigration was already well in progress in 1765 ● The British approach the Indians about a new boundary line for British lands ● Peace with the Indians is ratified on May 9, 1765, opening the way for western settlement ● Abram's cabin at Turkeyfoot was built in 1765 ● Fort Cumberland was scheduled to be abandoned by the military in 1765 ● Gage orders the abandonment of Fort Cumberland ● Sugar Bottom was already cleared in 1763 and patented in June 1765 ● John Johnson, Isaac Cox, and Daniel Pursley witness a Virginia property transaction ● A 1765 reference to a local sawmill ● Frederick Ice is involved in a land transaction on Patterson Creek ● The Frederick County court repudiates the stamp act in November 1765 ● A Maryland 'funeral' for the stamp act ● Gordon proposes supplying the forts on the Mississippi via Fort Cumberland

Chapter 18. 1766: A friendly Indian is murdered
An Indian is murdered between Fort Cumberland and Fort Bedford on January 11, 1766 ● John Penn sends letters regarding the murder ● Barrett's deposition regarding the murder of the friendly Indian ● A 1766 survey mentions John Friend's residence ● Sharpe writes to Lord Baltimore about the effect and repeal of the stamp act ● A road between Cumberland and Bedford on the east side of Wills Mountain ● People were living near the state line in 1766 ● Enoch Innis has family ties with Thomas and Michael Cresap ● An eyewitness says the fort was dilapidated in 1766, but still had ten cannons ● A 1766 building at the site of Corriganville ● Part of a Mill Race ● Michael Cresap patents an improved property ● Land gobbers ● Richard Morris obtains a land patent ● Imported stones are to be set up on the new boundary in the presence of commissioners ● Money appropriated for road improvements west of Fort Cumberland in 1766 ● John Penn follows up on the murder of the friendly Mohawk Indian ● Sharpe hopes Johnson will obtain consent for Mason and Dixon to continue their line ● The difficulty of preventing settlement west of the limits of the Royal Proclamation ● A reference to Nemacolin in 1766 ● A tradition of a family living at Fort Cumberland in the 1766 to 1769 timeframe

Chapter 19. 1767: Mason and Dixon return
Mount Pleasant has an old improvement ● Walnut Valley is surveyed for John Nicholls, Jr. ● Surveying instruments arrive at Fort Cumberland on July 7, 1767 ● Enoch Innis sells supplies to Mason and Dixon ● John Greenfield is involved in a property transaction on Little Cacapon ● John Greenfield is involved in a property transaction on Patterson's Creek ● James Livingston gives power of attorney to Enoch Innis for selling property ● Indians request a conference at Fort Cumberland or Colonel Cresap's place ● Mason and Dixon send to Fort Cumberland for more helpers on October 2, 1767 ● Mason and Dixon wrote a letter to a state governor ● Enoch Innis was a resident of Virginia in 1767 ● Kellams was living at the gap in Savage Mountain on November 20, 1767 ● Tomlinson was living in the valley of Wills Creek on November 22, 1767 ● Fauquier accuses Cresap of meddling in Indian affairs

Chapter 20. 1768: Steel reports from Fort Cumberland
Pennsylvania decides to get tough on trespassing settlers ● McCracken property transactions on Patterson Creek ● Sugar Bottom is sold to Joseph Mounts ● Lord Baltimore, Proprietor of Maryland, is put on trial for the rape of Sarah Woodcock ● Sharpe writes to Hamersley about laying out a manor west of Fort Cumberland ● A 1768 report to John Penn, written from Fort Cumberland ● Braddock's road west of Fort Cumberland was heavily settled by 1768 ● Paying for the survey of Lord Baltimore's manor west of Fort Cumberland ● A land transaction between James Livingston and Daniel Cresap ● The Fort Stanwix treaty was signed on November 5, 1768 ● Baptisms and church services near Fort Cumberland in November of 1768 ● Enoch Innis was living in Virginia in December 1768

Chapter 21. 1769: Western settlement approved
Land patents may be issued on surveys west of Fort Cumberland ● A land sale on Patterson Creek ● Pennsylvania announces that it will sell land within the new purchase ● A land transaction between Phillip Ross and Michael Cresap ● Non-importation of British goods is discussed at high levels in 1769 ● A July 1769 receipt for the land the Penns purchased from the Six Nations ● A Uniontown tradition of procuring salt and iron from Cumberland circa 1769 ● A Cresap-related land transaction ● John Jones is involved in a land transaction on Patterson Creek ● Clearing the Potomac, to make it more navigable to Fort Cumberland, is discussed in 1769 ● George French's father claimed land west of Fort Cumberland in 1769

Chapter 22. 1770: Mr. Innis at the new store
Killam's on a branch of Georges Creek, and Turner's mill near Short Gap, in 1770 ● The significance of Turner's 1770 mill ● Washington returns to Killam's on November 26, 1770 ● Innes had a residence in the environs of Fort Cumberland in the 1770 timeframe ● The location of the replacement New Store ● St. Catherine's, near Killam's ● Benjamin Tomlinson was living on the Ohio in the early 1770s ● Hauling commodities from Fort Cumberland, circa 1770

Chapter 23. 1771: Tomlinson millwrights
Philp Martin leases various lots on Patterson Creek ● John Tomlinson, millwright ● Sharpe reminds Lord Baltimore about the reserve west of Fort Cumberland ● Nathaniel Tomlinson, millwright ● Frederick Calvert, Lord Proprietor, dies in September 1771 ● The estate of John Greenfield sells the 149-acre tract on the Little Cacapon River ● Dickerson Simpkins lived in the vicinity of Fort Cumberland circa 1771 ● Cresap finds the source of the South Branch

Chapter 24. 1772: Settlers north of the state line
Luther Martin lodged with Innes at Fort Cumberland in 1772 ● A 1772 Virginia legislative act for improving navigation on the Potomac River ● A land transaction on the Potomac River ● Enoch Innis receives a commission ● Gage asks if goods are being transported via Fort Cumberland ● Cresap is paid for running the meridian line from the first fountain of the Potomac ● A Virginia land transaction between John Smith and Michael Cresap ● John Jacob begins minding Michael Cresap's store at Oldtown ● Nearby Brothersvalley Township, Bedford County, had many taxables by 1772 ● Richard Hoagland had a great deal of ground cleared in 1772 ● The Salisbury, Pennsylvania area settlement already existed in 1772 ● A tradition of Indian fields in the vicinity of Salisbury at the time of white settlement

Chapter 25. 1773: The year of the Boston Tea Party
A property transaction on the North Branch of the Potomac River ● 8,000 dollars provided for road improvement west from Fort Cumberland in 1773 ● A property transaction on Patterson Creek ● A property transaction on the North Branch of Potomac River ● The December 16, 1773 Boston Tea Party ● Joseph Doddridge's story of his pioneer experiences references Cumberland ● Doddridge reports that the majority of western settlers used Braddock's Road ● Doddridge reports that western settlers bartered for salt and iron at Cumberland

Chapter 26. 1774: Local resistance to importation
Consideration of the petition of Thomas French is postponed ● A property transaction on Patterson Creek ● A property transaction on the North Branch of Potomac River ● The board wants to remove the reserve on lands west of Fort Cumberland ● The May 17, 1774 meeting of the Board of Revenue ● Daniel Jenifer confronts the Board of Trade on behalf of existing settlers ● Richard Lee requests a list of settlements made west of Fort Cumberland ● Kilty explains Jenifer's conflict with the Board of Trade ● The British proprietary government is ousted from Maryland ● Local resistance to importation from Britain in 1774 ● Military companies are formed 'to act in any emergency' ● Passing through Fort Cumberland on the way to the battle of Point Pleasant in 1774 ● The battle of Point Pleasant ● An 1844 magazine estimates that Arnold's Settlement was established circa 1774 ● A Crist property transaction on Patterson Creek

Chapter 27. 1775: A British scheme to garrison the fort
Thomas Cresap was renting out property near Pinto, Maryland in 1775 ● Locating Turner's mill ● Locating Cresap's property ● Michael Cresap, Sr. is involved in two Virginia land transactions the same day ● Nicholas Cresswell's April 1775 journal entries ● A 1775 traveler writes home from the road, five miles west of Fort Cumberland ● Lexington and Concord ● Before the Revolution, people from Fayette County went to Fort Cumberland for flour ● The birthday of the United States Army ● Michael Cresap's First Company, Maryland Rifles ● A Virginia property transaction on the North Branch of the Potomac River ● The Jersey Baptist Church was formed in August of 1775 ● Funding for Cresap's rifle company ● Locating the residence of Enoch Innes in 1775 ● Taverns along Braddock's road, west of Fort Cumberland, in 1775 ● An eyewitness reports that Fort Cumberland was deserted and demolished in 1775 ● Michael Cresap died at New York on October 18, 1775 ● Two colonies hoped to retrieve cannon from Fort Cumberland in 1775 ● Introducing George Morgan ● The British army had a scheme to garrison Fort Cumberland in 1775

Chapter 28. 1776: Independence is declared
The continuation of Smyth's account takes him past Fort Cumberland twice ● George Morgan is appointed Agent for Indian affairs in January of 1776 ● Charles Clinton attempts to patent 'Nicholls Dispute' ● Virginia hoped to retrieve cannon from Fort Cumberland in 1776 ● Thomas Constable obtains property on the waters of Evitts Creek ● Enoch Innes is appointed to dispose of part of the estate of Lord Dunmore ● The Declaration of Independence ● Lemuel Barret is appointed Captain of a rifle company ● Barret is replaced by Thomas Beal as Captain of the Rifle Company ● Clinton and Cresap are appointed as local Militia Captains in 1776 ● Washington County is formed ● A newly mapped road to the Casselman River ● Laying in provisions at Fort Cumberland in 1776 ● A family tradition of a 1776 trail northward from Braddock's road

Chapter 29. 1777: Lead is delivered to Fort Cumberland
Robert Gregg is involved in a property transaction on Patterson Creek ● A Daniel Cresap land transaction on the South Branch ● George Morgan's responsibilities grow to include provisioning the western troops ● Captain at Cumberland in 1777 ● Delivering a large stock of lead to Fort Cumberland in the summer of 1777 ● Two Cresap land transactions in Virginia ● Brodhead's forces marched to Fort McIntosh via Fort Cumberland in 1777 ● Morgan is relieved of duties during a treason investigation ● Members of the Coxes Creek settlement retreat via Cumberland circa 1777 ● Virginia ratifies the Articles of Confederation ● Washington's forces arrive at Valley Forge on December 19, 1777 ● General Hand writes about Colonel George Morgan

Chapter 30. 1778: Military activity at Fort Cumberland
Packing flour from Fort Cumberland to Fort Redstone in 1778 ● A 1778 map shows buildings on both sides of the river ● The United States enters an alliance with France ● A new Quartermaster General ● Andrew Bruce's Oath of Fidelity list from the environs of Fort Cumberland ● Analysis of Bruce's list ● Samuel Barrit's list of individuals who signed the 'Oath of Fidelity and Support' ● Analysis of Barrett's list ● The text of the 'Oath of Fidelity and Support' ● George Morgan is exonerated and praised ● Washington County Court, March 1778 ● Coulston's company is divided between Cresap and Clinton ● Enoch Innes represents Hampshire County as a Delegate ● Commissions are issued to members of the Third or Western Battalion of Militia ● The back inhabitants of Maryland need immediate assistance ● The Third or Western Battalion of Militia is called into service ● Military supplies are being stored at Fort Cumberland in 1778 ● Barett is provided with instructions ● Commissions for officers of the Western Battalion were issued in June 1778 ● 1778 massacres anger Americans ● Morgan plans to lay in supplies at Skipton and Fort Cumberland ● Thomas Plummer is involved in a court matter ● Another Virginian marches through Fort Cumberland on his way to Fort McIntosh ● George Morgan is serving as Purchasing Commissary for the Western Department ● 500 packhorses were ordered to Fort Cumberland to supply Fort McIntosh in 1778 ● Enoch Innis is involved in a Virginia land transaction ● The horses will not be able to return more than once ● Guarding prisoners at Fort Cumberland in 1778 ● Passing Gwinn's tavern near Fort Cumberland with President Lincoln's grandfather ● Gum corrects his pension application, and adds more detail ● Congress funds supplies for the west

Chapter 31. 1779: Morgan's new road
Morgan cuts a new road from Fort Cumberland to resupply Fort Pitt in 1779 ● Transporting liquor from Fort Cumberland ● A multi-pronged attack is proposed to disrupt the Indian food supply ● A plan to deliver supplies to Fort Cumberland in the spring of 1779 ● Washington orders pack saddles for the campaign Greene proposed ● Fort Pitt desperately needs supplies in January 1779 ● A plan for an attack from Fort Pitt ● Congress responds to George Washington ● Look into the transportation issue! ● Washington writes McIntosh again ● A tumultuous time in local history due to Indian raids is revealed in a February 1779 letter ● Washington writes to Greene about transportation ● Congress asks Washington to act to protect the frontier ● March 1779 Washington County Maryland court ● Washington admonishes Wadsworth ● Washington writes to Governor George Clinton ● McIntosh is replaced by Brodhead ● Morris writes a scathing letter to Washington about McIntosh ● Morgan describes cutting the Turkey Foot Road ● Transportation to the western forts is hazardous ● Washington wavers about the attack from Fort Pitt ● Brodhead is ordered to plan an attack ● George Morgan's memorial to the General Assembly of Pennsylvania ● The missing Morgan letters from March of 1779 ● Joseph Reed writes to his lieutenants about the planned invasion of Indian country ● Worrying the campaign logistical details ● An April 20, 1779 update on cutting the road ● Analysis of Clinton's swamp statement ● Candidate swamps near the Casselman River ● Steel is exonerated ● Brodhead's attack is temporarily canceled ● The Council of Maryland references the forthcoming western expedition ● Washington explains the cancelation of the campaign from Fort Pitt ● Morgan writes to Royal Flint ● Morgan sends another road update ● Sullivan is appointed to lead the eastern campaign ● Supplies are moving toward Fort Pitt ● A May 17, 1779 letter describes an Indian invasion in Bedford County, Pennsylvania ● Brodhead reaches out for supplies ● McIntosh declares against George Morgan ● Brodhead continues to write about provisions ● Brodhead takes a swipe at McIntosh ● Morgan resigns from public service ● Sullivan's marching orders are to lay waste to the Indian settlements ● Fort Pitt receives supplies ● Brodhead plans a diversionary attack ● Brodhead chastises Steel ● Brodhead asks nearby counties for volunteers ● A report of no flour at Fort Cumberland or Old Town ● Sullivan's successful expedition against the Indian settlements ● Brodhead complains to Greene about Colonel Steel ● Charles Clinton is involved in a property transaction on the North Branch ● Brodhead's parallel campaign is also successful ● Brodhead reports to Washington ● A payment to Colonel Lemuel Barrett ● Brodhead continues to ask Morgan for help with supplies ● Sundry Purchases for the Western Department ● Morgan's November 9, 1779 letters about the new Turkey Foot Road ● Brodhead asks again for supply help from Morgan, despite Morgan's resignation ● David Blue and James Graham bring military supplies to Fort Cumberland by wagon ● Thomas Cresap sells Virginia property on the North Branch of the Potomac River ● Procuring salt from Fort Cumberland when Indians were still active in the area ● Lowdermilk's ancestor served during the Revolutionary War

Chapter 32. 1780: The effect of the deep snow
The impact of Broadhead's campaign, and the deep snow that came afterwards ● The winter of the deep snow ● The campaign, and the deep snow, had a devastating effect on the Indians ● Army supplies were being purchased at Fort Cumberland in 1780 ● Captain Isaac Craig's detachment marched to Fort Pitt via Fort Cumberland in 1780 ● Hunting Tories near Fort Cumberland in 1780 ● A sale of property on Bird Run ● A British plan to attack Fort Pitt and Fort Cumberland in 1780 ● William Anderson provided forage and flour to the army during the Revolution ● The original route of the Turkey Foot Road crossed the Glade Road at Ruffs Dale ● What was the impact of all the Revolutionary War military activity at Fort Cumberland?

Chapter 33. 1781: The war is won
Maryland ratifies the Articles of Confederation ● A reference to Colonel Enoch Innis ● Enoch Innis once again acts as Livingston's attorney ● There was a farm on Walnut Bottom on May 10, 1781 ● The Revolutionary War ended in October 1781 ● A 1781 law appropriating the land west of Fort Cumberland for Maryland soldiers ● John Jacob marries Michael Cresap's widow ● Enoch Innis transfers a Virginia property to John Haynes

Chapter 34. 1782: The names of a few residents
Charles Clinton was living on Walnut Bottom in 1782, and Wiley was living nearby ● The estate of Jacob Good sells property on Patterson Creek ● Colonel Innes had a plantation at Fort Cumberland in 1782 ● A recorded apology ● Another individual who was living in the environs of Cumberland in 1782 ● The Potomac River was considered useful for water transportation in 1782 ● Indian depredations in Bedford County, near the Maryland line, in 1782 ● The Husband family retreats to Fort Cumberland in 1782

Chapter 35. 1783: A thriving farming settlement
A thriving farming settlement existed in the environs of Fort Cumberland in 1783 ● Sugar Bottom, revisited ● Residents of the Great Youghiogheny Glades petition for pre-emption ● A proclamation 'Declaring the cessation of arms' is approved by Congress ● Evan Gwynn, Deputy Sheriff ● Generational changes ● A Virginia property sale on the North Branch of the Potomac River ● Thomas Beall purchases Walnut Bottom on October 25, 1783 ● The hundreds lists from the environs of Fort Cumberland

Chapter 36. 1784: Grand schemes for transportation
The Treaty of Paris is ratified in January of 1784 ● Abraham Johnson sells a tract on Cabbin Run ● Washington writes to Jefferson about transportation in 1784 ● Cresap transfers Virginia property to Luther Martin ● Thomas Cresap transfers Virginia property to Michael Cresap ● Thomas Cresap transfers Virginia property to William Young ● John Jacob purchases Virginia property on the North Branch of Potomac River ● Washington's September 10, 1784 journal entry ● Tomlinson's, Mount's, and Daugherty's, west of Fort Cumberland in 1784 ● Washington reports that Dr. Craig is taking the new road back from Simpson's place ● George Washington meets a youthful Albert Gallatin ● Canoes reported in use above Fort Cumberland in 1784 ● Washington's visionary thinking concerning western transportation ● Doctor James Craig's October 2, 1784 letter to George Washington ● A resolution to write to Pennsylvania about laying out a road to the Youghiogheny River ● Ellicott stays at Mounts Tavern in November of 1784 ● Ellicott stays at Tittle's Tavern in November of 1784 ● A Simpkins at Old Town in 1784 ● A 1784 law voids certain land grants to the westward of Fort Cumberland ● The December 22, 1784 Report of the Commissioners of Virginia and Maryland ● The Patowmack Company is approved in 1784 ● George Lowdermilk reportedly built a house at Fort Cumberland circa 1784

Chapter 37. 1785: The town begins
Reportedly, a tavern existed at the site of Cumberland when the town was laid out ● Washington writes to Richard Henry Lee about a new road from Fort Cumberland ● A law resolving property ownership conflicts with Pennsylvania ● Thomas Beall purchases a large Virginia property ● Thomas Cresap is blind by 1785 ● A considerable number of people are settling at Cumberland ● Ellicott returns to Mr. Mountains ● Andrew Porter describes Oldtown in the spring of 1785 ● Virginia proposes a new westerly road from Fort Cumberland ● Andrew Porter refers to the town of Fort Cumberland in the spring of 1785 ● The June 10, 1785 survey of Henry West mentions Fort Cumberland ● Pine Tavern, in nearby Pennsylvania, in 1785 ● A 1785 reference to Nemacolin ● Cumberland was originally called Washington Town ● Thomas Beall, of Samuel reportedly built a house at Fort Cumberland circa 1785

Chapter 38. 1786: An act for 'erecting' the town
Daniel Cresap is appointed as a Justice of Washington County, Maryland ● An act for erecting Fort Cumberland into a town passed the legislature in 1786 ● The text of the act erecting Fort Cumberland into a town ● Washington advises Mr. Lear to take the new road

Chapter 39. After the founding of the town
Although the focus of the two-volume book set "Fort Cumberland" is a compilation of records before the founding of the town of Cumberland, Chapter 39 provides various interesting post-1786 tidbits regarding the environs of the town. The chapter is not intended to be a comprehensive study of the post-1786 timeframe. Instead, it merely presents a few things was aware of from previous research, such as the names of Maryland heads of families living werestward of Fort Cumberland in 1787, the physical condition of the old fort as time passed, the formation of Allegany County, an early descriptions of the town, road improvements, Washington's visit with the militia during the Whiskey Rebellion, analysis of the Washington's headquarters tradition, militia supplies remaining at Fort Cumberland in 1796, the use of the Potomac River for transportation, the advent of the railroad, etc.

Introduction ● A postal route is established ● The resolves of 1787 ● Over 300 families are living west of Fort Cumberland ● The death of Colonel Thomas Cresap ● The convening of the Constitutional Convention ● Only the remains of the earthen ramparts of the Fort survived in 1787 ● The new Constitution of the United States goes into effect ● A petition to form a new county and open courts at Fort Cumberland fails in 1788 ● An act allowing settlers to purchase land west of Fort Cumberland passed in 1788 ● Washington's inauguration as President in 1789 ● Sale of 1,000 lots west of Fort Cumberland is announced in 1789 ● The deadline for payment is extended in 1789 ● Allegany County was formed in 1789 ● Reverend Morse mentions roads from Wills Creek to the Youghiogheny ● Population of Allegany County in 1790 ● Disposing of Michael Cresap's real estate ● A circa 1791 description of the fledgling town ● A 1791 petition from the purchasers of lots westward of Fort Cumberland ● The Bill of Rights is ratified in 1791 ● Mounts Ford and Ferry at Sugar Bottom ● Speculating on the location of Mountz's ford ● An improved road to present-day Corriganville is commissioned in 1791 ● An example of a family migrating westward via Cumberland in 1792 ● A road between present-day Barrelville and Frostburg is made public ● Westerly road improvements continue after the founding of the town of Cumberland ● The Potomac is being used for water transportation ● John Jacob frees three slaves ● The militia are to unite at Fort Cumberland ● Providing houses for the sick at Fort Cumberland during the Whiskey Rebellion ● Washington reviews the troops at Cumberland during the Whiskey Rebellion ● Identifying Major Lynn ● Wellford's journal entry for October 16, 1794 ● The Washington's headquarters tradition ● The size of the army at Cumberland ● The probable origin of the Washington's headquarters tradition ● My piece of the 'Washington's headquarters' building ● The route of the army west of Fort Cumberland ● Dining at Beatty's tavern in 1794, and lodging at Captain Thomas Beall's ● Another adjustment to the land payment schedule is made in 1794 ● A house is built on the site of Fort Cumberland ● Cumberland gets a new bridge in 1796 ● Military stores remaining at Fort Cumberland in 1796 ● A petition for a road mentions a store at the site of present day Corriganville in 1797 ● Another reference to using the Potomac River for water transportation ● The Sugar Bottom tract is divided among Joseph Mounts' three sons ● An 1801 petition to complete a Maryland portion of the Cumberland Road ● Another 1801 petition, interpreted as being related to the new Cumberland Road ● Maryland Route 47 is laid out in 1804, as part of the new Cumberland Road ● A description of the town of Cumberland from 1804 ● The National Road is authorized westward of Cumberland in 1807 ● Albert Gallatin mentions the Great Road leading from Mounts ferry to Gwynne's tavern ● The significant economic advantage of boating goods to Fort Cumberland ● Local taverns, including Arnold's hotel ● The War of 1812 ● The earthworks of Fort Cumberland were still identifiable in 1816 ● A resurvey of the town of Cumberland is ordered by the legislature in 1817 ● The new National Road is open for travel in 1818 ● The Impact of the new National Road on regional commerce ● A massive westward migration between 1790 and 1820 ● A description of Cumberland ● Thomas Beal, of Samuel, proprietor of the town of Cumberland, died in 1823 ● Ground Breaking for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal ● The National Road is in bad condition by 1828, and is repaired in 1835 ● The 'place long known by the name of Mountz's Ferry' ● A turnpike company is incorporated in Pennsylvania and Maryland ● The earthworks of Fort Cumberland were still traceable circa 1833 ● A Somerset County portion of the turnpike was mentioned in 1834 ● Toll gates are authorized on the new Somerset and Cumberland Turnpike in 1837 ● One last look at Sugar Bottom, and the ferry there ● The iron works at Mount Savage ● An outsider purchases a large tract of land for mineral development in 1840 ● The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reaches Cumberland in 1842 ● An 1842 article mentions the completion of a Maryland section of the turnpike ● The Somerset and Cumberland Turnpike facilitated development of mineral resources ● A reference to the Mount Savage Iron Works in 1843 ● An 1844 description of Cumberland ● An 1844 long haul mail route ● The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is completed to Cumberland in 1850 ● The plank road from Cumberland to West Newton ● A description of Cumberland in the mid-1800s ● Almost every trace of Fort Cumberland is gone

Chapter 40. The town was still called 'Fort Cumberland' long after it was founded
Chapter 40 references surveys, legislation, and a medical journal to show that the town we now know as Cumberland was still sometimes referred to by the name "Fort Cumberland" well into the 1800s.

Introduction ● Surveys along the Hays mill path ● A survey along the Turkey Foot Road ● An 1801 reference to the town of Fort Cumberland ● An 1805 reference to the 'town of Fort Cumberland' ● An 1817 reference to the town of Fort Cumberland

L. Dietle, author of the 'Fort Cumberland' books.
Mr. Dietle, author of "Fort Cumberland".

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